April 18, 2016 by Leigh St John
· Comments Off on The Development of Old Age and Related Issues
Filed under: General
In traditional Chinese and other Asian cultures the aged were highly respected and cared for. The Igabo tribesmen of Eastern Nigeria value dependency in their aged and involve them in care of children and the administration of tribal affairs (Shelton, A. in Kalish R. Uni Michigan 1969).
In Eskimo culture the grandmother was pushed out into the ice-flow to die as soon as she became useless.
Western societies today usually resemble to some degree the Eskimo culture, only the “ice-flows” have names such a “Sunset Vista” and the like. Younger generations no longer assign status to the aged and their abandonment is always in danger of becoming the social norm.
There has been a tendency to remove the aged from their homes and put them in custodial care. To some degree the government provides domiciliary care services to prevent or delay this, but the motivation probably has more to do with expense than humanity.
In Canada and some parts of the USA old people are being utilised as foster-grandparents in child care agencies.
SOME BASIC DEFINITIONS
What is Aging?
Aging: Aging is a natural phenomenon that refers to changes occurring throughout the life span and result in differences in structure and function between the youthful and elder generation.
Gerontology: Gerontology is the study of aging and includes science, psychology and sociology.
Geriatrics: A relatively new field of medicine specialising in the health problems of advanced age.
Social aging: Refers to the social habits and roles of individuals with respect to their culture and society. As social aging increases individual usually experience a decrease in meaningful social interactions.
Biological aging: Refers to the physical changes in the body systems during the later decades of life. It may begin long before the individual reaches chronological age 65.
Cognitive aging: Refers to decreasing ability to assimilate new information and learn new behaviours and skills.
GENERAL PROBLEMS OF AGING
Eric Erikson (Youth and the life cycle. Children. 7:43-49 Mch/April 1960) developed an “ages and stages” theory of human development that involved 8 stages after birth each of which involved a basic dichotomy representing best case and worst case outcomes. Below are the dichotomies and their developmental relevance:
Prenatal stage – conception to birth.
- Infancy. Birth to 2 years – basic trust vs. basic distrust. Hope.
- Early childhood, 3 to 4 years – autonomy vs. self doubt/shame. Will.
- Play age, 5 to 8 years – initiative vs. guilt. Purpose.
- School age, 9to 12 – industry vs. inferiority. Competence.
- Adolescence, 13 to 19 – identity vs. identity confusion. Fidelity.
- Young adulthood – intimacy vs. isolation. Love.
- Adulthood, generativity vs. self absorption. Care.
- Mature age- Ego Integrity vs. Despair. Wisdom.
This stage of older adulthood, i.e. stage 8, begins about the time of retirement and continues throughout one’s life. Achieving ego integrity is a sign of maturity while failing to reach this stage is an indication of poor development in prior stages through the life course.
Ego integrity: This means coming to accept one’s whole life and reflecting on it in a positive manner. According to Erikson, achieving integrity means fully accepting one’ self and coming to terms with death. Accepting responsibility for one’s life and being able to review the past with satisfaction is essential. The inability to do this leads to despair and the individual will begin to fear death. If a favourable balance is achieved during this stage, then wisdom is developed.
Psychological and personality aspects:
Aging has psychological implications. Next to dying our recognition that we are aging may be one of the most profound shocks we ever receive. Once we pass the invisible line of 65 our years are bench marked for the remainder of the game of life. We are no longer “mature age” we are instead classified as “old”, or “senior citizens”. How we cope with the changes we face and stresses of altered status depends on our basic personality. Here are 3 basic personality types that have been identified. It may be a oversimplification but it makes the point about personality effectively:
a. The autonomous – people who seem to have the resources for self-renewal. They may be dedicated to a goal or idea and committed to continuing productivity. This appears to protect them somewhat even against physiological aging.
b.The adjusted – people who are rigid and lacking in adaptability but are supported by their power, prestige or well structured routine. But if their situation changes drastically they become psychiatric casualties.
c.The anomic. These are people who do not have clear inner values or a protective life vision. Such people have been described as prematurely resigned and they may deteriorate rapidly.
Summary of stresses of old age.
a. Retirement and reduced income. Most people rely on work for self worth, identity and social interaction. Forced retirement can be demoralising.
b. Fear of invalidism and death. The increased probability of falling prey to illness from which there is no recovery is a continual source of anxiety. When one has a heart attack or stroke the stress becomes much worse.
Some persons face death with equanimity, often psychologically supported by a religion or philosophy. Others may welcome death as an end to suffering or insoluble problems and with little concern for life or human existence. Still others face impending death with suffering of great stress against which they have no ego defenses.
c. Isolation and loneliness. Older people face inevitable loss of loved ones, friends and contemporaries. The loss of a spouse whom one has depended on for companionship and moral support is particularly distressing. Children grow up, marry and become preoccupied or move away. Failing memory, visual and aural impairment may all work to make social interaction difficult. And if this then leads to a souring of outlook and rigidity of attitude then social interaction becomes further lessened and the individual may not even utilise the avenues for social activity that are still available.
d. Reduction in sexual function and physical attractiveness. Kinsey et al, in their Sexual behaviour in the human male, (Phil., Saunders, 1948) found that there is a gradual decrease in sexual activity with advancing age and that reasonably gratifying patterns of sexual activity can continue into extreme old age. The aging person also has to adapt to loss of sexual attractiveness in a society which puts extreme emphasis on sexual attractiveness. The adjustment in self image and self concept that are required can be very hard to make.
e. Forces tending to self devaluation. Often the experience of the older generation has little perceived relevance to the problems of the young and the older person becomes deprived of participation in decision making both in occupational and family settings. Many parents are seen as unwanted burdens and their children may secretly wish they would die so they can be free of the burden and experience some financial relief or benefit. Senior citizens may be pushed into the role of being an old person with all this implies in terms of self devaluation.
4 Major Categories of Problems or Needs:
Physiological Changes: Catabolism (the breakdown of protoplasm) overtakes anabolism (the build-up of protoplasm). All body systems are affected and repair systems become slowed. The aging process occurs at different rates in different individuals.
Physical appearance and other changes:
Loss of subcutaneous fat and less elastic skin gives rise to wrinkled appearance, sagging and loss of smoothness of body contours. Joints stiffen and become painful and range of joint movement becomes restricted, general mobility lessened.
Increase of fibrous tissue in chest walls and lungs leads restricts respiratory movement and less oxygen is consumed. Older people more likelyto have lower respiratory infections whereas young people have upper respiratory infections.
Tooth decay and loss of teeth can detract from ease and enjoyment in eating. Atrophy of the taste buds means food is inclined to be tasteless and this should be taken into account by carers. Digestive changes occur from lack of exercise (stimulating intestines) and decrease in digestive juice production. Constipation and indigestion are likely to follow as a result. Financial problems can lead to the elderly eating an excess of cheap carbohydrates rather than the more expensive protein and vegetable foods and this exacerbates the problem, leading to reduced vitamin intake and such problems as anemia and increased susceptibility to infection.
Adaptation to stress:
All of us face stress at all ages. Adaptation to stress requires the consumption of energy. The 3 main phases of stress are:
1. Initial alarm reaction. 2. Resistance. 3. Exhaustion
and if stress continues tissue damage or aging occurs. Older persons have had a lifetime of dealing with stresses. Energy reserves are depleted and the older person succumbs to stress earlier than the younger person. Stress is cumulative over a lifetime. Research results, including experiments with animals suggests that each stress leaves us more vulnerable to the next and that although we might think we’ve “bounced back” 100% in fact each stress leaves it scar. Further, stress is psycho-biological meaning the kind of stress is irrelevant. A physical stress may leave one more vulnerable to psychological stress and vice versa. Rest does not completely restore one after a stressor. Care workers need to be mindful of this and cognizant of the kinds of things that can produce stress for aged persons.
COGNITIVE CHANGE Habitual Behaviour:
Sigmund Freud noted that after the age of 50, treatment of neuroses via psychoanalysis was difficult because the opinions and reactions of older people were relatively fixed and hard to shift.
Over-learned behaviour: This is behaviour that has been learned so well and repeated so often that it has become automatic, like for example typing or running down stairs. Over-learned behaviour is hard to change. If one has lived a long time one is likely to have fixed opinions and ritualised behaviour patterns or habits.
Compulsive behaviour: Habits and attitudes that have been learned in the course of finding ways to overcome frustration and difficulty are very hard to break. Tension reducing habits such as nail biting, incessant humming, smoking or drinking alcohol are especially hard to change at any age and particularly hard for persons who have been practising them over a life time.
The psychology of over-learned and compulsive behaviours has severe implications for older persons who find they have to live in what for them is a new and alien environment with new rules and power relations.
Older people have a continual background of neural noise making it more difficult for them to sort out and interpret complex sensory input. In talking to an older person one should turn off the TV, eliminate as many noises and distractions as possible, talk slowly and relate to one message or idea at a time.
Memories from the distant past are stronger than more recent memories. New memories are the first to fade and last to return.
Time patterns also can get mixed – old and new may get mixed.
Intelligence reaches a peak and can stay high with little deterioration if there is no neurological damage. People who have unusually high intelligence to begin with seem to suffer the least decline. Education and stimulation also seem to play a role in maintaining intelligence.
Intellectual impairment. Two diseases of old age causing cognitive decline are Alzheimer’s syndrome and Pick’s syndrome. In Pick’s syndrome there is inability to concentrate and learn and also affective responses are impaired.
Degenerative Diseases: Slow progressive physical degeneration of cells in the nervous system. Genetics appear to be an important factor. Usually start after age 40 (but can occur as early as 20s).
ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE Degeneration of all areas of cortex but particularly frontal and temporal lobes. The affected cells actually die. Early symptoms resemble neurotic disorders: Anxiety, depression, restlessness sleep difficulties.
Progressive deterioration of all intellectual faculties (memory deficiency being the most well known and obvious). Total mass of the brain decreases, ventricles become larger. No established treatment.
PICK’S DISEASE Rare degenerative disease. Similar to Alzheimer’s in terms of onset, symptomatology and possible genetic aetiology. However it affects circumscribed areas of the brain, particularly the frontal areas which leads to a loss of normal affect.
PARKINSON’S DISEASE Neuropathology: Loss of neurons in the basal ganglia.
Symptoms: Movement abnormalities: rhythmical alternating tremor of extremities, eyelids and tongue along with rigidity of the muscles and slowness of movement (akinesia).
It was once thought that Parkinson’s disease was not associated with intellectual deterioration, but it is now known that there is an association between global intellectual impairment and Parkinson’s where it occurs late in life.
The cells lost in Parkinson’s are associated with the neuro-chemical Dopamine and the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s are associated the dopamine deficiency. Treatment involves administration of dopamine precursor L-dopa which can alleviate symptoms including intellectual impairment. Research suggests it may possibly bring to the fore emotional effects in patients who have had psychiatric illness at some prior stage in their lives.
AFFECTIVE DOMAIN In old age our self concept gets its final revision. We make a final assessment of the value of our lives and our balance of success and failures.
How well a person adapts to old age may be predicated by how well the person adapted to earlier significant changes. If the person suffered an emotional crisis each time a significant change was needed then adaptation to the exigencies of old age may also be difficult. Factors such as economic security, geographic location and physical health are important to the adaptive process.
Need Fulfilment: For all of us, according to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory, we are not free to pursue the higher needs of self actualisation unless the basic needs are secured. When one considers that many, perhaps most, old people are living in poverty and continually concerned with basic survival needs, they are not likely to be happily satisfying needs related to prestige, achievement and beauty.
Belonging, love, identification
Esteem: Achievement, prestige, success, self respect
Self actualisation: Expressing one’s interests and talents to the full.
Note: Old people who have secured their basic needs may be motivated to work on tasks of the highest levels in the hierarchy – activities concerned with aesthetics, creativity and altruistic matters, as compensation for loss of sexual attractiveness and athleticism. Aged care workers fixated on getting old people to focus on social activities may only succeed in frustrating and irritating them if their basic survival concerns are not secured to their satisfaction.
Social aging according to Cumming, E. and Henry, W. (Growing old: the aging process of disengagement, NY, Basic 1961) follows a well defined pattern:
- Change in role. Change in occupation and productivity. Possibly change in attitude to work.
- Loss of role, e.g. retirement or death of a husband.
- Reduced social interaction. With loss of role social interactions are diminished, eccentric adjustment can further reduce social interaction, damage to self concept, depression.
- Awareness of scarcity of remaining time. This produces further curtailment of activity in interest of saving time.
Havighurst, R. et al (in B. Neugarten (ed.) Middle age and aging, U. of Chicago, 1968) and others have suggested that disengagement is not an inevitable process. They believe the needs of the old are essentially the same as in middle age and the activities of middle age should be extended as long as possible. Havighurst points out the decrease in social interaction of the aged is often largely the result of society withdrawing from the individual as much as the reverse. To combat this he believes the individual must vigorously resist the limitations of his social world.
DEATH The fear of the dead amongst tribal societies is well established. Persons who had ministered to the dead were taboo and required observe various rituals including seclusion for varying periods of time. In some societies from South America to Australia it is taboo for certain persons to utter the name of the dead. Widows and widowers are expected to observe rituals in respect for the dead.
Widows in the Highlands of New Guinea around Goroka chop of one of their own fingers. The dead continue their existence as spirits and upsetting them can bring dire consequences.
Wahl, C in “The fear of death”, 1959 noted that the fear of death occurs as early as the 3rd year of life. When a child loses a pet or grandparent fears reside in the unspoken questions: Did I cause it? Will happen to you (parent) soon? Will this happen to me? The child in such situations needs to re-assure that the departure is not a censure, and that the parent is not likely to depart soon. Love, grief, guilt, anger are a mix of conflicting emotions that are experienced.
CONTEMPORARY ATTITUDES TO DEATH
Our culture places high value on youth, beauty, high status occupations, social class and anticipated future activities and achievement. Aging and dying are denied and avoided in this system. The death of each person reminds us of our own mortality.
The death of the elderly is less disturbing to members of Western society because the aged are not especially valued. Surveys have established that nurses for example attach more importance to saving a young life than an old life. In Western society there is a pattern of avoiding dealing with the aged and dying aged patient.
Stages of dying. Elisabeth Kubler Ross has specialised in working with dying patients and in her “On death and dying”, NY, Macmillan, 1969, summarised 5 stages in dying.
- Denial and isolation. “No, not me”.
- Anger. “I’ve lived a good life so why me?”
- Bargaining. Secret deals are struck with God. “If I can live until…I promise to…”
- Depression. (In general the greatest psychological problem of the aged is depression). Depression results from real and threatened loss.
- Acceptance of the inevitable.
Kubler Ross’s typology as set out above should, I believe be taken with a grain of salt and not slavishly accepted. Celebrated US Journalist David Rieff who was in June ’08 a guest of the Sydney writer’s festival in relation to his book, “Swimming in a sea of death: a son’s memoir” (Melbourne University Press) expressly denied the validity of the Kubler Ross typology in his Late Night Live interview (Australian ABC radio) with Philip Adams June 9th ’08. He said something to the effect that his mother had regarded her impending death as murder. My own experience with dying persons suggests that the human ego is extraordinarily resilient. I recall visiting a dying colleague in hospital just days before his death. He said, “I’m dying, I don’t like it but there’s nothing I can do about it”, and then went on to chortle about how senior academics at an Adelaide university had told him they were submitting his name for a the Order of Australia (the new “Knighthood” replacement in Australia). Falling in and out of lucid thought with an oxygen tube in his nostrils he was nevertheless still highly interested in the “vain glories of the world”. This observation to me seemed consistent with Rieff’s negative assessment of Kubler Ross’s theories.
THE AGED IN RELATION TO YOUNGER PEOPLE
The aged share with the young the same needs: However, the aged often have fewer or weaker resources to meet those needs. Their need for social interaction may be ignored by family and care workers.
Family should make time to visit their aged members and invite them to their homes. The aged like to visit children and relate to them through games and stories.
Meaningful relationships can be developed via foster-grandparent programs. Some aged are not aware of their income and health entitlements. Family and friends should take the time to explain these. Some aged are too proud to access their entitlements and this problem should be addressed in a kindly way where it occurs.
It is best that the aged be allowed as much choice as possible in matters related to living arrangements, social life and lifestyle.
Communities serving the aged need to provide for the aged via such things as lower curbing, and ramps.
Carers need to examine their own attitude to aging and dying. Denial in the carer is detected by the aged person and it can inhibit the aged person from expressing negative feelings – fear, anger. If the person can express these feelings to someone then that person is less likely to die with a sense of isolation and bitterness.
A METAPHYSICAL PERSPECTIVE
The following notes are my interpretation of a Dr. Depak Chopra lecture entitled, “The New Physics of Healing” which he presented to the 13th Scientific Conference of the American Holistic Medical Association. Dr. Depak Chopra is an endocrinologist and a former Chief of Staff of New England Hospital, Massachusetts. I am deliberately omitting the detail of his explanations of the more abstract, ephemeral and controversial ideas.
Original material from 735 Walnut Street, Boulder, Colorado 83002,
Phone. +303 449 6229.
In the lecture Dr. Chopra presents a model of the universe and of all organisms as structures of interacting centres of electromagnetic energy linked to each other in such a way that anything affecting one part of a system or structure has ramifications throughout the entire structure. This model becomes an analogue not only for what happens within the structure or organism itself, but between the organism and both its physical and social environments. In other words there is a correlation between psychological conditions, health and the aging process. Dr. Chopra in his lecture reconciles ancient Vedic (Hindu) philosophy with modern psychology and quantum physics.
Premature Precognitive Commitment: Dr. Chopra invokes experiments that have shown that flies kept for a long time in a jar do not quickly leave the jar when the top is taken off. Instead they accept the jar as the limit of their universe. He also points out that in India baby elephants are often kept tethered to a small twig or sapling. In adulthood when the elephant is capable of pulling over a medium sized tree it can still be successfully tethered to a twig! As another example he points to experiments in which fish are bred on
2 sides of a fish tank containing a divider between the 2 sides. When the divider is removed the fish are slow to learn that they can now swim throughout the whole tank but rather stay in the section that they accept as their universe. Other experiments have demonstrated that kittens brought up in an environment of vertical stripes and structures, when released in adulthood keep bumping into anything aligned horizontally as if they were unable to see anything that is horizontal. Conversely kittens brought up in an environment of horizontal stripes when released bump into vertical structures, apparently unable to see them.
The whole point of the above experiments is that they demonstrate Premature Precognitive Commitment. The lesson to be learned is that our sensory apparatus develops as a result of initial experience and how we’ve been taught to interpret it.
What is the real look of the world? It doesn’t exist. The way the world looks to us is determined by the sensory receptors we have and our interpretation of that look is determined by our premature precognitive commitments. Dr Chopra makes the point that less than a billionth of the available stimuli make it into our nervous systems. Most of it is screened, and what gets through to us is whatever we are expecting to find on the basis of our precognitive commitments.
Dr. Chopra also discusses the diseases that are actually caused by mainstream medical interventions, but this material gets too far away from my central intention. Dr. Chopra discusses in lay terms the physics of matter, energy and time by way of establishing the wider context of our existence. He makes the point that our bodies including the bodies of plants are mirrors of cosmic rhythms and exhibit changes correlating even with the tides.
Dr. Chopra cites the experiments of Dr. Herbert Spencer of the US National Institute of Health. He injected mice with Poly-IC, an immuno-stimulant while making the mice repeatedly smell camphor. After the effect of the Poly-IC had worn off he again exposed the mice to the camphor smell. The smell of camphor had the effect of causing the mice’s immune system to automatically strengthen as if they had been injected with the stimulant. He then took another batch of mice and injected them with cyclophosphamide which tends to destroy the immune system while exposing them to the smell of camphor. Later after being returned to normal just the smell of camphor was enough to cause destruction of their immune system. Dr. Chopra points out that whether or not camphor enhanced or destroyed the mice’s immune system was entirely determined by an interpretation of the meaning of the smell of camphor. The interpretation is not just in the brain but in each cell of the organism. We are bound to our imagination and our early experiences.
Chopra cites a study by the Massachusetts Dept of Health Education and Welfare into risk factors for heart disease – family history, cholesterol etc. The 2 most important risk factors were found to be psychological measures – Self Happiness Rating and Job Satisfaction. They found most people died of heart disease on a Monday!
Chopra says that for every feeling there is a molecule. If you are experiencing tranquillity your body will be producing natural valium. Chemical changes in the brain are reflected by changes in other cells including blood cells. The brain produces neuropeptides and brain structures are chemically tuned to these neuropeptide receptors. Neuropeptides (neurotransmitters) are the chemical concommitants of thought. Chopra points out the white blood cells (a part of the immune system) have neuropeptide receptors and are “eavesdropping” on our thinking. Conversely the immune system produces its own neuropeptides which can influence the nervous system. He goes on to say that cells in all parts of the body including heart and kidneys for example also produce neuropeptides and neuropeptide sensitivity. Chopra assures us that most neurologists would agree that the nervous system and the immune system are parallel systems.
Other studies in physiology: The blood interlukin-2 levels of medical students decreased as exam time neared and their interlukin receptor capacities also lowered. Chopra says if we are having fun to the point of exhilaration our natural interlukin-2 levels become higher. Interlukin-2 is a powerful and very expensive anti-cancer drug. The body is a printout of consciousness. If we could change the way we look at our bodies at a genuine, profound level then our bodies would actually change.
On the subject of “time” Chopra cites Sir Thomas Gall and Steven Hawkins, stating that our description of the universe as having a past, present, and future are constructed entirely out of our interpretation of change. But in reality linear time doesn’t exist.
Chopra explains the work of Alexander Leaf a former Harvard Professor of Preventative Medicine who toured the world investigating societies where people lived beyond 100 years (these included parts of Afghanistan, Soviet Georgia, Southern Andes). He looked at possible factors including climate, genetics, and diet. Leaf concluded the most important factor was the collective perception of aging in these societies.
Amongst the Tama Humara of the Southern Andes there was a collective belief that the older you got the more physically able you got. They had a tradition of running and the older one became then generally the better at running one got. The best runner was aged 60. Lung capacity and other measures actually improved with age. People were healthy until well into their 100s and died in their sleep. Chopra remarks that things have changed since the introduction of Budweiser (beer) and TV.
[DISCUSSION: How might TV be a factor in changing the former ideal state of things?]
Chopra refers to Dr. Ellen Langor a former Harvard Psychology professor’s work. Langor advertised for 100 volunteers aged over 70 years. She took them to a Monastery outside Boston to play “Let’s Pretend”. They were divided into 2 groups each of which resided in a different part of the building. One group, the control group spent several days talking about the 1950s. The other group, the experimental group had to live as if in the year 1959 and talk about it in the present tense. What appeared on their TV screens were the old newscasts and movies. They read old newspapers and magazines of the period. After 3 days everyone was photographed and the photographs judged by independent judges who knew nothing of the nature of the experiment. The experimental group seemed to have gotten younger in appearance. Langor then arranged for them to be tested for 100 physiological parameters of aging which included of course blood pressure, near point vision and DHEA levels. After 10 days of living as if in 1959 all parameters had reversed by the equivalent of at least 20 years.
Chopra concludes from Langor’s experiment: “We are the metabolic end product of our sensory experiences. How we interpret them depends on the collective mindset which influences individual biological entropy and aging.”
Can one escape the current collective mindset and reap the benefits in longevity and health? Langor says, society won’t let you escape. There are too many reminders of how most people think linear time is and how it expresses itself in entropy and aging – men are naughty at 40 and on social welfare at 55, women reach menopause at 40 etc. We get to see so many other people aging and dying that it sets the pattern that we follow.
Chopra concludes we are the metabolic product of our sensory experience and our interpretation gets structured in our biology itself. Real change comes from change in the collective consciousness – otherwise it cannot occur within the individual.
Chopra, D. The New Physics of Healing. 735 Walnut Street, Boulder, Colorado 83002,
Phone. +303 449 6229.
Coleman, J. C. Abnormal psychology and modern life. Scott Foresman & Co.
Lugo, J. and Hershey, L. Human development a multidisciplinary approach to the psychology of individual growth, NY, Macmillan.
Dennis. Psychology of human behaviour for nurses. Lond. W. B.Saunders.
Dr. Victor Barnes is an Adelaide psychologist and hypnotherapist. He has also had three decades of experience in adult education including serving as Dean of a Sri Lankan college (ICBT) teaching several Australian degrees. His overseas experience includes studies and consulting experience in USA, PNG, Poland and Sri Lanka.
July 24, 2014 by Leigh St John
· Comments Off on Bring Global Flavor to Your Table with Pork
Filed under: Articles
Explore new flavors and cuisines and take a tasty trip around the world with pork – all from the comfort of your own home. Pork’s versatility and savory taste make it the perfect pairing with global ingredients and dishes, giving you a passport to delicious mealtimes you will want to share with family and friends.
Need some inspiration? Create a Pork Bucket List and fill it with ideas for global-tasting meals with pork. Try:
* Making your own marinade using a new ingredient from a far-off place, like chiles.
* Visiting a new ethnic restaurant that serves dishes like dim sum or Korean barbecue and then find recipes at PorkBeinspired.com to replicate your favorites at home.
* Discovering pork dishes from all seven continents, starting with Asia and these Thai Ribeye Pork Chops.
For Thai Ribeye Pork Chops, mix up a slightly tangy Asian-inspired marinade before grilling. And remember, for juicy, tender results that you, your family and friends will love, grill your pork chops to an internal temperature between 145°F (medium rare) and 160°F (medium), followed by a three-minute rest.
Serve these chops on top of a bed of noodles for a Thai pork noodle bowl, or alongside an herb salad of fresh basil, mint, scallions and cilantro for a meal packed with a world of flavor.
Keep your grilling and cooking fresh and exciting with more global recipes. Visit www.PorkBeinspired.com and www.Pinterest.com/PorkBeinspired for recipes, ideas, tips and more.
Thai Ribeye Pork Chops
1/4 cup soy sauce
1/4 cup cilantro, chopped OR 1 tablespoon dried cilantro
3 cloves garlic, crushed (about 3 tablespoons)
3 tablespoons brown sugar
1 tablespoon vegetable oil
1 lime, juiced
4 boneless ribeye pork chops, about 3/4- to 1-inch thick
Whisk together soy sauce, cilantro, garlic, brown sugar, vegetable oil and lime juice in bowl.
In large baking dish, arrange ribeye pork chops in even layer. Pour marinade over pork chops, reserving about 1/4 cup of marinade in refrigerator for later use.
Marinate pork chops for 20-30 minutes.
Heat indoor grill pan or outdoor grill to medium-high heat. Remove pork chops from marinade, discarding excess marinade. Place pork chops on hot grill for 4 minutes on each side, flipping once until internal temperature of pork measures between 145°F (medium rare) and 160°F (medium) on meat thermometer.
Transfer grilled pork chops to cutting board and let rest for 3 minutes before slicing against grain.
Pour reserved marinade over sliced pork before serving.
Livliga dishware is a new solution to help these two generations eat right and stay healthy
Americans are living longer than ever, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, but the fight to stay healthy is just as challenging as it has been with past generations. Recent studies show that the Silent Generation, born from 1927 to 1945 and Baby Boomers, born from 1946 to 1964, collectively face three major nutritional challenges.
A Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine study shows Baby Boomers have higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, obesity and high cholesterol when compared to their previous generation. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations also shows the highest obesity rates are currently found in Baby Boomers.
For the Silent Generation, currently ages 68 to 85, the National Institute on Aging says its main challenge is related to lack of balanced nutrition and getting enough calories.
The NIA says this group has:
- decreased appetite
- trouble chewing food
- less socialization around food
- diminished sense of taste and smell
- medication interference with food enjoyment
- fixed incomes
One new solution is Livliga, a tool Baby Boomers and Silent Generation seniors can use to promote right-sized food portions to reach target weights as well as to guide intake of balanced nutritional meals. Created with an Advisory Committee including a cardiologist and certified nutritionist, Livliga offers easy, subtle cues to improve and control the food environment.
“Livliga is a solution for every stage of life,” says inventor, Sheila Kemper Dietrich. “It can be used by people who are under eating and need to be reminded to take in more calories or to help those who are struggling to shrink their waistlines. The guide to portion sizes combined with reminders of what comprises a balanced meal are the keys to better health for both groups.”
Livliga is Swedish for LIVELY, VIBRANT or VIVID, which is the company’s core philosophy. Kemper Dietrich’s vision was to create an attractive suite of place settings designed for a healthy lifestyle and suitable for entertaining family and friends in both formal and informal settings. The beautiful designs on the dishware offer elegant visual cues to guide appropriate and right-sized servings. The initial product launch was a 4-piece place setting in two patterns, including a dinner plate, salad/luncheon plate, bowl and mug. Livliga also offers a serving bowl, etched water and wine glasses.
For Baby Boomers or Silent Generation seniors with grandchildren, Kidliga can also be helpful to promote healthy habits for the entire family. Kidliga is whimsical, fun dishware for kids, accompanied by a health-oriented children’s storybook. Sammie & Sax in the Land of Quinoa: The Search for a Balanced Meal just won a Moonbeam Award in the Health Issues category and is a useful tool and solution to help families in the fight against childhood obesity.
Livliga products are specifically designed to help both adults and children address the “psychology of eating”. The rim sizes, color palette, and designs all combine to encourage slower eating, make portion sizes look larger, as well as make food more visually appealing.
A 4-piece Livliga place setting is available on the company website at www.LivligaHome.com at an introductory price of $49.95 (MSRP $59.95). All of the additional products and pricing can be easily found on the website as well. Kemper Dietrich says plans call for further product launches, including additional patterns and a set of LivSpoons that makes for easy, everyday measuring and serving of right-sized portions.
To purchase Livliga, visit the online store at www.LivligaHome.com. “Like” Livliga on Facebook at facebook.com/LivligaHome, follow on Twitter @LivligaHome and visit our blog at LivligaHome.blogspot.com. Watch our videos on YouTube.com/LivligaHome.
Agency Zero Public Relations
Traveling is one thing that even older people can enjoy. Whether you are a seasoned traveller or someone who is just beginning to enjoy traveling, these travel advice can help you plan a safe and enjoyable trip. Here are some helpful tips for senior citizen travelers:
Prepare your documents as early as possible. Passport is the most important document and you can apply in person, through passport agencies and by mail. When you receive your passport, be sure to fill in the information page so that your family and friends can be notified in case of accident or emergency. Most countries requires visa, so after acquiring a valid passport, you also need a valid visa. These documents need time for processing and for senior citizen travelers, it is best to apply 2-3 months before your trip to avoid stress and rushing that could be bad for you.
Do not bring more than you need. Bring only the things that you need because it will be so tiring to carry heavy suitcases. Senior citizen travelers, should not burden themselves with too much luggage. Wash and wear clothing is a good idea so that you will not bring too many clothes. Avoid bringing valuable things like jewelries and dress simply to avoid being a target of thieves. Bring only reasonable cash with you. Bring your additional budget in the form of traveler’s check, credit card and ATM card.
Senior citizen travelers should check their health condition with their doctor before traveling. Find out if you need immunization before traveling to protect you from serious diseases abroad. If you are under medications, it is important to bring enough supply to maintain your health. Bring your medicines in its original packages or bottles and bring your doctor’s prescription to avoid narcotics issues in foreign countries or airports. Review your insurance policy and check if it covers your medical expenses abroad, if not it is best to buy a policy that covers your travel medical expenses.
Read and get information about the country you want to visit. It is best for senior citizen travelers to know the current situation of their destination in terms of security, weather, culture, people, laws and other important things about your destination. You can protect your health, security and enjoy more on your trip if you know more about your destination.
Don’t stress yourself. Senior citizen travelers should not subject themselves to stressful situations. Even if this is the travel you’ve been waiting all your life, it is not wise to stress yourself and fill in all your time with a lot of activities. Take time to relax, you will not enjoy if you are too tired.
Look for best deals to get the best out of your travel. Traveling could be really expensive if you do not know where to find the best deals. There are a lot of perks available especially for senior citizen travelers. Getting discounts on your accommodation and airfare will give you more opportunity to enjoy your trip. Find out how to get cheap airfare visit Your World Travel Guide [http://www.yourworldtravelguide.com/]
To travel on a budget visit Travel Secrets
Gerry Restrivera writes informative articles on various subjects including Tips for Senior Citizen Travelers. You are allowed to publish this article in its entirety provided that author’s name, bio and website links must remain intact and included with every reproduction.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Gerry_Restrivera
As we reach our later years we are at risk of a great many health concerns. The list of senior citizens health conditions is a long and complex one. It includes both mental and physical issues and some people will be plagued with both.
It can only be expected that, as time takes it toll on our bodies, we will experience some deterioration in our physical and mental wellbeing. That is not to say that once we have retired we are on the scrap heap and just waiting until our lives are over. Far from it. There has been a huge amount of medical research taking place over the last century, and indeed much longer, and this has paved the way for a greater understanding of the aging process. We are now much more educated regarding nutrition and health matters and are able to control and sometimes eliminate many of the senior citizens health conditions.
One of the main fears that the elderly face is that of dementia of one form or another. The most commonly known is Alzheimer’s Disease but there are others. This affects the patients mind and can be the cause of heartache for a caring partner who will feel unable to help. They will find that they spend much of their time caring for the patient whilst at the same time having to accept the fact that they are becoming more distant as the disease progresses. This can be aggravated if the carer is also suffering from any one of the other senior citizens health conditions, either physically or mentally.
Other serious conditions can often include strokes. Post stroke problems can vary hugely depending on the severity of the attack and the level of recovery of the patient. Sometimes a stroke can result in partial paralysis. This obviously has a far reaching affect on the elderly and may jeopardise their ability to get out and visit family and friends. Even the most simple tasks, which were taken for granted previously, may now cause a problem; shopping, housework etc. Strokes are high on the list of senior citizens health conditions, but, they are also the subject of a lot of research and our understanding of the subject is increasing all the time. Post stroke care has improved a great deal and in some cases patients now recover fully.
Heart disease has been an increasing problem in all age groups, but continues to be a main factor in contributing to senior citizens health conditions. Once again, however, research is good on the subject and our knowledge increasing all the time. Surgical options are becoming more common and our expertise in the field has contributed to many lives being extended.
There are a number of senior citizens health conditions which can be helped by a careful diet being followed during our earlier years. Osteoporosis, rheumatism and arthritis have all been the subject of studies and tests. Some foods have been found to be a great help in reducing the chances of becoming a sufferer.
Don’t wait until it is too late. There has been so much research undertaken on the subject of senior citizens health conditions that you would be wise to take action early and follow the advice that is available so that you can increase your chances of enjoying your later years in the best possible health.
Ian Pennington is an accomplished niche website developer and author.
To learn more about senior health [http://seniorhealthblog.info/senior-citizens-health-conditions], please visit Senior Health Blog [http://seniorhealthblog.info] for current articles and discussions.
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Healthy Eating and Lifestyle
While it is important for people of all ages to stay healthy, it is especially important for senior citizens to maintain healthy eating habits as well as to stay active which is important in the prevention of chronic illnesses like diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. By practicing healthier living practices, senior citizens can maintain a healthy weight, avoid depression, and stay mentally sharp. Those participating in caring for the elderly should be aware of these healthy living practices and work to both encourage and facilitate them.
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, a healthy diet includes many different types of food that are rich in nutrients. They have outlined specifically what this eating plan entails at the website.. Because this eating plan is designed specifically for senior citizens, it focuses on the types of foods that are important for preventing common ailments of older Americans like obesity and serious chronic illnesses.
Healthy Eating 101:
By following some of the tips listed, senior citizens can start a healthier lifestyle today:
- Don’t skip meals. It is important to eat regularly in order to maintain normal metabolism and not become tempted to eat higher fat foods when food is consumed.
- Eat a diet that is high in fiber. By eating foods like whole-grain breads, beans, vegetables, and fruits, you can lower your susceptibility to diabetes and heart disease.
- Senior citizens especially should begin to adjust their diet to one that includes less calories and fat because the body will need less as it ages.
- Calcium and Vitamin D are very important for nutrition and keeping bones strong. You can get this by either getting in at least three servings of dairy every day, or substituting these with soy-based beverages and proteins.
- Senior citizens will have a harder time absorbing adequate amounts of the B12 vitamin. For this reason, it is important to eat cereals fortified with this nutrient or taking vitamin B12 supplements with meals.
- Snack the smart way. Senior citizens will want to limit the amount of unhealthy snacking they do which involves foods high in calories and sugars. Instead, keep small portions of dried fruit, peanut butter, or crackers at hand to keep the appetite under control while remaining healthy.
- Drink plenty of water. Although senior citizens often feel less thirsty then they used to, it is important to stay hydrated by either drinking water or water-based beverages like tea, coffee, soup, and skim milk.
Planning and Preparing Meals
Sometimes people find it hard to eat healthily because eating is often a social event which involves many people with different eating preferences and goals. While it is important to be able to enjoy a meal with family and friends, it is also important to maintain your own eating integrity by making sure everyone is on board with your personal healthy eating goals. Friends and family, as well as those providing elder care should facilitate healthy eating, not detour from it. The following tips address ways that senior citizens can maintain the healthy eating habits without sacrificing the social aspect of sharing a meal with others or learning to adjust to a lifestyle that involves eating with less people on a day-to-day basis.
- Grocery shopping with others. This can be a fun and smart way to control the cost and quantity of food that you consume. If you don’t live with many people, this is a good way to split large-quantity items like potatoes and eggs which you may not be ableto use before expiration.
- A time saving a smart way to eat healthy is cooking large quantities of food ahead of time and portioning for heating on later dates.
- A quick way to prepare meals for yourself or for guests involves keeping frozen or canned fruits and vegetables on hand. Draining and/or rinsing canned foods is a good way to lower sodium or calories in foods that are kept in high sugar or high salt fluids.
- Eating or preparing a meal shouldn’t always be a chore. Trying new recipes or eating outside can be a fun new twist on a meal with someone special.
- Try to eat with people you enjoy to be around.
- Some senior citizens have difficulty preparing meals, which is why it is important to become informed about home health care agencies or eldercare facilities that can aid in providing meals. The Eldercare Locator number is 1-800-677-1116.
Loss of Appetite or Desire to Eat
There are various reasons for why some senior citizens may not eat as well as they should or lose the desire to eat completely.
If you find that it is difficult to eat well, then it is best to speak with a healthcare provider or someone involved in your elder care about what can be done to help you eat better.
Some senior citizens are unable to eat well due to issues involving the condition of their teeth or issues with dentures. Checking with a dentist about physical pain that occurs when eating or other issues can help with these issues that lead to poorer eating habits.
When senior citizens lose family and friends or become depressed about events in their life, they may lose the desire to eat. In these instances, it is of the utmost importance that these individuals seek help from people they trust like their family, friends, church community, or those assisting with their elder care that will happily help them in finding ways to continue a healthy lifestyle and eating plan.
Some senior citizens complain that the flavor of foods change when they begin to take certain medications. While it is best to consult with a physician about issues surrounding medication, people can also take vitamin supplements with food that will help them stay healthy.
If you have someone who assists with your in home care, ask them to be vigilant about helping you eat healthy. Have them remind you to eat, and ask them to lend you a hand in preparing meals that are good for you.
Maintaining a healthy weight is important for being able to function in day-to-day life as well as stay mentally sharp. Senior citizens often lose or gain weigh as they age. If you are unsure about what weight you should maintain, consult your physician.
Health Risks Associated with Being Underweight
- poor memory
- compromised immunity
- osteoporosis (weak bones)
- decreases strength
- hypothermia (lowered body temperature)
Health Risks Associated with Being Overweight
- type 2 diabetes
- high blood pressure
- high cholesterol
- heart disease
- stroke (lack of oxygen transported to the brain)
- some cancers
- gallbladder disease
Because healthy weights will differ for everyone, it is important to verify with a physician whether it is healthy for you personally to lose or gain weight.
Participating in regular healthy amounts of physical activity can not only make you feel better, but it can make you less prone to diabetes, heart disease, and colon cancer. Staying active can be difficult for senior citizens, still it is an important part of a healthy lifestyle.
The following are some tips for maintaining a lifestyle that incorporates physical activity:
- Know what amount of physical activity is appropriate for you. Everyone has different levels of activity that is safe for them, and while remaining active is important, always consult a health care provider about what is right for your lifestyle.
- Take time to warm up, cool down, or take breaks when participating in a session of increased physical activity.
- Take it slow. Always start slowly and build up to more intense levels of physical activities.
- If you experience any pain, dizziness, or shortness of breath during exercise, stop the activity immediately.
- Drink water.
- Dress appropriately if you decide to exercise outdoors. Wear warmer clothes during the winter and wear lighter clothes during the summer while applying sunscreen or wearing sunglasses.
- Wear the correct shoes for the activities that you participate in.
Types of Activity
Aerobic activities include activities that increase the heart rate and work the larger muscle groups. You may be able to speak a few words, but would not be able to carry on an entire conversation due to breathing patterns. Some examples of aerobics include:
- brisk walking
- water aerobics
- house work
- active play with children or pets
Begin incorporating small periods of this activity into your schedule during the week while slowly increasing the duration and frequency as time progresses. It is also important to incorporate different types of exercise that focus on balance and flexibility. Becoming used to a lifestyle with regular patterns of aerobic activity can reduce the effects of aging, control weight, lower risk of heart disease, improve flexibility, increase mood and energy, and expand social networks by meeting new people while doing various activities.
Strengthening activities involve the use of muscle groups against resistant forces like when lifting weights or doing yard work that involves lifting, digging, or pushing a lawn mower. This type of activity can keep muscles strong, reduce the need for a cane, reduce risk of bone injury, and help maintain a healthy weight.
Balance activities focus on muscles in specific areas of the body that encourage control as you move through space, reducing the likelihood of falls. This kind of activity could include walking heel to toe, standing on one foot, getting out of a sitting position without the use of the hands, and standing on the tip of your toes. Balance activities can help you stay steady on your feet and reduce the risk of fall and subsequent injury.
Flexibility activities increase the length of the muscles and can include stretching, yoga, and popular exercise programs like pilates. These activities can maintain the felxibility of joints, prevent stiffness, prevent injuries, and lower stress levels in general.
Weight-bearing activities require the muscles to work against gravity where the arms or legs bear the weight of the body. Activities like walking, tennis, and climbing stairs can build and maintain bone mass or reduce the risk of bone fractures.
Some activities incorporate multiple types of strengthening addressed above. What is important is that senior citizens find an enjoyable and do-able activity that will help them incorporate as many benefits as possible which will have far-reaching benefits to their health.
It’s Easy to Stay Healthy
A common misconception is that it takes an excessive amount of time and extra energy to maintain a healthy lifestyle. However, by just taking short walks for ten minutes a time or cleaning the house regularly can be practical ways to incorporate different physical activities into your daily schedule. And remember, staying healthy as a senior citizen will have increasing benefits as you continue to age.
Staying Motivated to Take Care of Yourself
Just because we age doesn’t mean that we are any less stressed by occurrences in life that may make us feel bad about ourselves or decrease our motivation to be good to ourselves. If anything, many of the challenges senior citizens face add stress. Losing loved ones and friends or having trouble being independent with the added stressed of disease and functioning due to aging can cause depression or lifestyle changes that contribute to bad health. Here are some important tips for being good to yourself when you may not feel motivated due to circumstances out of your control:
- Get plenty of sleep
- Stay connected with family and friends
- Join clubs or other social groups that you enjoy
- Spend time with people that you enjoy
- Volunteer at organizations in your community
- Work a part-time job that isn’t too stressful or demanding
- Watch a funny movie or find a way to laugh
- Take up a hobby that you enjoy
Most importantly, senior citizens should remember that it is relatively easy and worth-while to maintain a healthy lifestyle as they age. Be sure to keep family, friends, and those involved in your elder care informed of your goals as they can help assist you. And remembering to eat healthy meals regularly, getting in physical activity, getting enough sleep, and being good to yourself are critical for maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
The Caring Space http://www.TheCaringSpace.com
David Crumrine at the Caring Space We are an organization that connects caregivers and care seekers, providing an easy and affordable resource for families seeking care for friends/loved ones and caregivers seeking employment.
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Silver Sky at Deer Springs
An Exceptional Retirement and Assisted Living Community for Nevada Seniors
Silver Sky at Deer Springs Assisted Living pulled out the stops to create a family-style Retirement and Assisted Living setting while providing services that reflect both quality and caring. We feel it’s so exceptional that it places us in a class of our own.
The Deer Springs staff takes pride in their jobs and provide quality services tailored made to meet your every need. They’ll take time to get to know you personally and to put a smile on your face too. It isn’t their intention to become part of your family but when they spend as much time with you as they do, it just happens.
The Deer Springs staff takes pride in their jobs and provide quality services tailored made to meet your every need. They’ll take time to get to know you personally and to put a smile on your face too. It isn’t their intention to become part of your family but when they spend as much time with you as they do, it just happens.
State of the Art Kitchen
Silver Sky at Deer Springs Assisted Living is bright, clean, and spacious. When friends and family visit they will enjoy your apartment home because of the attractiveness, details, freshness and personality built into the design. Each apartment comes equipped with a refrigerator/freezer and microwave oven. Our classic design and colors are suitable for all tastes and create a lot of compliments.
Outside your personal apartment at Silver Sky at Deer Springs Assisted Living you’ll find plenty of space to share and enjoy with family and friends. A brightly decorated reception area and lobby, library, living room, activity room and a delightful Bistro for beverages, snacks, ice cream and plenty of visiting await you.
Knowing the importance of quality of life, Silver Sky at Deer Springs Assisted Living supports dignity, independence, choices, flexibility, and style for seniors who thrive on quality of life.
Silver Sky at Deer Springs Assisted Living serves the needs of all seniors in compliance with Fair Housing Laws and the general public seeking affordable housing. (Income restrictions apply).
Our Apartments Are Centrally Located
A shopping center is only a block away and is home to many stores and shops including Wal-Mart, Costco, Stein Mart, Wells Fargo Bank, Bed Bath and Beyond as well as many great restaurants, and other shopping is close at hand.
Centennial Hills Hospital Med Center is just five and half miles away and Mountain View Medical Center is a short 7 miles away.
Assisted Living Services
If and when you need a little extra help, we can assist you with the activities of daily living. These services are provided in the comfort of your apartment home without necessitating a need to move. Some of our services include: Personal laundry, daily housekeeping, medications, bathing, and dressing, transportation, hygiene, and nutrition.
Emergency Communication System
All apartments are connected to an emergency communication system that allows residents to reach our staff 24 hours a day, seven days a week, in case of emergency.
We provide scheduled transportation for shopping trips, organized social and recreational activities, and medical and dental appointments.
The dining room is open, airy, and intimate yet comfortable and provides you with three nutritious meals daily. Our Executive Chef’s at Silver Sky and at Deer Springs love to create fresh and flavorful meals with variety and nutrition and always with your health in mind. In fact, our menus are seasonal and reviewed by a Registered Dietician. Invited Guests and Family are always welcome to dine with you.
Our culinary team prepares over 200,000 meals annually and savors the opportunity to create your favorites! Theme dinners are offered throughout the year to celebrate special events such as Cinco De Mayo, St. Patrick’s Day, Thanksgiving, and the entire holiday season plus special luaus and so much more.
Any wartime veteran with 90 days of active duty, one day beginning or ending during a period of war, is eligible to apply for the Aid & Attendance Improved Pension. A surviving spouse may also apply. The individual applying must qualify both medically and financially.
To qualify medically, a wartime veteran or surviving spouse must need the assistance of another person to perform daily tasks, such as eating, dressing or undressing, taking care of the needs of nature, etc. being blind or in a nursing home for mental or physical incapacity, or residing in an assisted living facility also qualifies.
Eligibility must be proven by filing the proper Veterans Application for Pension or Compensation. This application will require a copy of DD-214 or separation papers, medical evaluation from a physician, current medical issues, net worth limitations, and net income, along with out-of-pocket medical expenses.
To qualify financially, an applicant must have on average less than $80,000 in assets, excluding their home and vehicles.
You must still be income qualified as well as pass the other qualifiers to become a resident at Deer Springs Assisted Living.
What’s Included in my Monthly Fees?
Monthly fees include all utilities (with the exception of phone and internet), breakfast, lunch and dinner. Also included are weekly housekeeping, bus transportation, and fun activity and wellness programs, concierge service, educational and cultural events and 24-hour staffing.
Do You Accept Veterans?
Yes we do.
How is behind Silver Sky? Are the communities stable places to live? Yes, they are stable communities.
How is the food?
The food is great. If you’d like, stop by some time and try it out.
Is living at a Silver Sky Community fun?
Our residents think so. We have a slate of fun things to do and keep you active.
What’s the staff like at your communities?
We invite you to schedule an appointment to meet everyone.
Do you have two bedroom apartments?
Yes we do.